620 Main North Road (State Highway 1, Also Known As Kincaid Road), Hapuku, Kaikoura
List Entry Information
List Entry Status
List Entry Type
Historic Place Category 2
Private/No Public Access
30th June 2006
Extent of List Entry
Registration includes the building, its fittings and fixtures and part of the land on Certificate of Title MB1A/346.
Sec 3 of 189 District of Kaikoura Suburban (CT MB1A/346), Marlborough Land District.
Pine Terrace is the original homestead of a farm established by Kaikoura pioneer Joseph Hailes during the intensive settlement of the Kaikoura district in the 1870s. A simple cottage, it remains in the Hailes family to this day and is occupied by a descendent. The house has been adapted over the years to meet the changing needs of each generation.
Extensive pastoral farming in the Kaikoura region began before 1849, but small arable farms were not established until the newly-surveyed sections of Kaikoura Township and its 'Suburban' hinterland were put up for sale by the Marlborough Provincial Council in 1864. Sales were initially slow, but increased after disappointed gold miners - many of whom were Irish - began to arrive from 1866. The following year, the new Marlborough Waste Lands Act permitted the granting of land in exchange for public works. Twenty six small farms in the Kaikoura area were ultimately granted in this manner, and the new roads that resulted from the policy encouraged further settlement. This accelerated after 1872, when the upset (government) price for land was reduced by 25%. Between 1868 and 1885, the population of the Kaikoura region grew from 410 to 1,536 people. Over the same period, the number of small holdings over an acre in extent grew from 39 to 127.
During the first decades of closer settlement, most small Kaikoura farmers derived their income from the sale of potatoes and a little wheat - which was exported to Wellington, the West Coast goldfields, and occasionally as far as Sydney. Income however was usually insufficient to sustain families, and many supplemented their farms with road work, cutting flax, and shearing and mustering on pastoral runs. After crop failures and as markets changed, many began to raise sheep and cattle on their lands. A major transition took place however after 1894, when Marlborough's first cooperative dairy factory opened at Kaikoura. Thereafter, dairy farming rapidly supplanted other land uses to became the basis of the livelihoods of Kaikoura's small farmers.
Joseph Mary Hailes (1854-1933) was born in Staffordshire, and came to New Zealand with his father Walter, his mother, and his siblings in 1863. After a short period in the Waiau, the Hailes' shifted south to Kaikoura in about 1866. Walter and his sons initially engaged in road making for the Marlborough Provincial Council, and later carried out carting and contracting throughout the Kaikoura district. Sherrard notes that the family kept bullocks for their contract work for nearly forty years.
The Hailes family were paid for their road building with grants of land under the Marlborough Waste Lands Act, and it was by this means that Joseph acquired 150 acres of crown leasehold property at Hapuku in the mid 1870s. Naming his new farm 'Pine Terrace', Joseph built a homestead looking east, out over the sea. He married in 1887, but his first wife Mary died in 1890. Joseph married again in 1893, and was out-lived by his second wife Edith.4 According to family legend, Joseph designed his homestead to allow for expansion should he have a large family. However, as only two sons (Felix and Tate) were born of his first marriage and none of his second, the house was never extended.
After Edith's death in 1936, Joseph's son Tate remained living in the homestead until his death in 1948. The house was then empty for a period, before being briefly occupied by Felix's son Tom and his wife Pat from about 1950. A sunroom was added to the north elevation, and a bathroom to the west in this year. Felix's other son, Peter, and his late wife Noelene took up residence in 1954, and raised their family in the home.
The interior was altered in the late 1960s, when the wall separating the hall and lounge was removed to open the house up. Also during the 1960s, all the original windows were replaced with new wooden windows of a more modern profile. An extension was added to the southern elevation in c1980.
Peter Hailes remains in the old homestead in retirement, while the dairying property is farmed by his son Bernard, who lives in a new homestead nearby.
Historical Significance or Value
Significance or value (section 23(1)): historical, social, architectural
Pine Terrace homestead has historical value as one of the remote Kaikoura region's earliest remaining dwellings: the home of pioneer settler Joseph Mary Hailes and his descendents. The cottage represents a period of more intensive settlement in the district, when extensive pastoral estates were giving way to small family farms.
The homestead has architectural value as a representative example of a pioneer dwelling. The 'L' plan cottage was a common colonial house form.
Pine Terrace also has social significance as an example of a home that has adapted and evolved to meet the changing needs of each generation of the Hailes family.
(a) The extent to which the place reflects important or representative aspects of New Zealand history:
The homestead represents the simple homes erected by settlers throughout New Zealand during the first wave of settlement. The Kaikoura hinterland was intensively settled from the mid 1860s, and Pine Terrace is a product of this period. The house also represents the historical continuity of many families in rural districts. After 130 years the Hailes family continue to farm Pine Terrace, and value the link with their ancestors that the original homestead provides.
(g) The technical accomplishment or value, or design of the place:
The homestead is of a form (the 'L' plan) and modest scale typical of many pioneer dwellings. Salmond writes that the basic unit of ordinary house design in nineteenth century New Zealand was the wooden 'box' cottage of one or two rooms, and most houses were variations of this. The 'L' variation, of which Pine Terrace is an example, was a common irregular plan 'combined box' arrangement.
Builder: Joseph Hailes
About ten kilometres north of the isolated east coast township of Kaikoura, the Hapuku River emerges from the Seaward Kaikoura range, and crosses a narrow coastal plain to
the sea. This rural district is known as Hapuku. Two kilometres south of the river, on the
seaward side of State Highway 1, is the farm 'Pine Terrace'. The farm's buildings, including both the original and a modern homestead, are located in a group down a long drive about a kilometre from the State Highway, and half a kilometre from the coast.
The original homestead sits in a tree-shaded garden, and is a small 'L' shaped one-and-a-half storey settler's cottage, with twin gable windows and a simple verandah on the sea-facing (east) front elevation. The rear has a third gable and a short lean-to. The two chimneys are poured concrete. The original corrugated iron roof remains. Small additions have been made to the north, south and west elevations; and the fenestration altered. Little of the original internal ground floor plan remains.
Addition of sunroom to north and bathroom to west
Replacement of all original windows
Internal alterations to integrate hall and lounge
Addition of room to south
Weatherboard with a corrugated iron roof
Cyclopedia of New Zealand, 1906
Cyclopedia Company, Industrial, descriptive, historical, biographical facts, figures, illustrations, Wellington, N.Z, 1897-1908, Vol. 5, Nelson, Marlborough, Westland, 1906
Jeremy Salmond, Old New Zealand Houses 1800-1940, Auckland, 1986, Reed Methuen
J. Sherrard, Kaikoura: A History of the District Kaikoura: Kaikoura County Council, 1966.
A copy of the original report is available from the NZHPT Southern Region office
Please note that entry on the New Zealand Heritage List/Rarangi Korero identifies only the heritage values of the property concerned, and should not be construed as advice on the state of the property, or as a comment of its soundness or safety, including in regard to earthquake risk, safety in the event of fire, or insanitary conditions.