Parikowhai Pa

230‐310 Springfield Road, Napier

  • Parikowhai Pa. Terrace/pits and ditch/bank of Parikowhai Pa.
    Copyright: Heritage New Zealand. Taken By: David Rudd. Date: 1/04/2014.
  • Parikowhai Pa. View of Tutaekuri River and Hawke's Bay from Pa site.
    Copyright: Heritage New Zealand. Taken By: David Rudd. Date: 1/04/2014.
  • Parikowhai Pa. Plan from Archaeological Site Land Title Form.
    Copyright: Heritage New Zealand.

List Entry Information

List Entry Status Listed List Entry Type Historic Place Category 2 Public Access Private/No Public Access
List Number 6419 Date Entered 8th July 1985

Locationopen/close

Extent of List Entry

Extent includes the land described as Area Y on Lot 2 DP 430264 (CT 517758), Hawke’s Bay Land District, and the archaeological site known as Pa (V21/82) thereon.

City/District Council

Hastings District

Region

Hawke's Bay Region

Legal description

Area Y on Lot 2 DP 430264 (CT 517758), Hawke’s Bay Land District

Summaryopen/close

New Zealand Heritage List no. 6419 (NZAA site V21/82) is a long narrow ridgeline pa on farmland on the east side of Springfield Road, located to the west of Taradale and northeast of Waiohiki. The pa has cultural, traditional and historical significance and is one of a series of archaeological sites on the high ground above the terrace of the Tutaekuri River. Two other pa sites lie nearby to the north. These sites are all on the western side of the hills where they have elevated views of the surrounding landscape and have utilised the natural defences of the topography.

Local historian Pat Parsons has identified this pa as Parikowhai, according to local Maori oral history. While Parikowhai is not rare it has important archaeological contextual and information value as an element of Maori occupation and settlement of the inland Tutaekuri River valley area. This settlement pattern is directly related to the resources and attributes of the Tutaekuri River. The river carries silt and gravel down a narrow valley through low hill country. In its natural state swamps on the river terrace would have absorbed floodwaters and served to provide eels and other resources to sustain the nearby settlements. The pits on the pa indicate that iwi were also gardening the fertile soil of the area and storing their produce within the protective perimeter of the pa defences. This suggests they were built during a time of conflict, or in preparation for conflict.

While the date of initial construction for the pa has not yet been determined it may have been constructed during a period of widespread pa building and occupation that was undertaken in the vicinity of Te Whanganui-a-Orotu and the Tutaekuri area from 1550 to 1700, around the time that Ngati Kahungunu iwi moved into the Hawkes’s Bay. Archaeological evidence and Maori oral history points to the initial settlement of Hawke’s Bay around 1250–1300 AD. Different hapu gradually settled the area from Mahia to Porangahau in a variety of diverse landscapes. About 1550 to 1625, Taraia, great grandson of Kahungunu, and his followers established themselves at Otatara, to the south of pa V21/82, to secure access to and control over Te Whanganui-a-Orotu and the Tutaekuri River.

V21/82 pa is on a narrow ridge with steep scarps to the river on the west and east to a gully. There are eight raised rim pits and a central platform defended by three transverse lines of ditches, banks and scarps. There are possible in-filled pits located on the flat area to the south at the base of the ridgeline. In 2014 it was noted that there are subtle changes in the ground surface up the ridge leading to the high point, which suggest that the pa may once have extended all the way up to that position and was scaled down at a later date. The features of the pa are generally in fair condition and well defined, however the site has been affected by farming activities and there has been some damage to the banks and pit rims caused by stock and farm vehicles which have cut deep ruts along the entire length of the site.

Linksopen/close

Additional informationopen/close

Construction Dates

Public NZAA Number

V21/82

Completion Date

28th May 2015

Report Written By

Christine Barnett

Other Information

Please note that entry on the New Zealand Heritage List/Rarangi Korero identifies only the heritage values of the property concerned, and should not be construed as advice on the state of the property, or as a comment of its soundness or safety, including in regard to earthquake risk, safety in the event of fire, or insanitary conditions..

A fully referenced upgrade report is available on request from the Central Region Office of Heritage New Zealand