Historical Significance or Value
Erskine College (Former) is of outstanding historical significance for its association with the Society of the Sacred Heart (Sacré Coeur), who brought their international mission to educate girls to Wellington at the invitation of Bishop Francis Redwood, who was also very involved in providing opportunities for Catholic education in New Zealand. The additions to the complex tell the story of Sacré Coeur's 79-year association with the school, and reflect the development of Catholic education in New Zealand. By the time of its closure in 1985 nearly 3000 girls had been educated at Erskine College, many of whom went on to become prominent in their communities, and whose contribution to New Zealand society is incalculable. Erskine College (Former) is also notable for its association with prominent architect John Sydney Swan, who designed the two main buildings of the complex as well as other additions and alterations, and who donated a stained glass window in the Chapel to demonstrate his esteem for the school.
Aesthetic Significance or Value:
Set on the eastern hillside of the Island Bay valley, Erskine College has been a prominent local landmark since the construction of the main convent building in 1904-6. The impressive large buildings and well-established grounds are a highly visible presence in the suburb and one which the community considers to be an important part of the landscape.
The sombre exterior of the convent building speaks to the Edwardian educational principles of its time of construction, and also conveys the philosophies of the Society of the Sacred Heart through its use of cross motifs and the Sacred Heart emblem as decorative detailing. Although imposing, the spaces of the convent building still evoke a strong emotional response in former students and staff, as evidenced by reminiscences published by alumnae. This attachment extends to the surrounding grounds, as well as the Chapel of the Sacred Heart. The elegant proportions of the interior of the Chapel, which is reputed to be the finest Gothic chapel interior in New Zealand, have an undeniable beauty and strong visual impact. The detailing and splendour of the interior architecture and furnishings, made from the best materials available at the time, combine to convey an atmosphere of richness, glory, reverence and awe, which greatly add to the aesthetic significance of the whole site.
Architectural Significance or Value:
Erskine College & Chapel are of high architectural significance as the work of John Sydney Swan whose substantial work gave New Zealand some of its finest buildings. The Chapel and Convent are among his greatest achievements and are remarkable for their design, form, planning and detailing. These buildings, early in Swan's career, show a confident resourcefulness in design, mixing appearance that is both progressively inventive and comfortingly traditional with clever planning and a firm structural approach.
Erskine College is remarkable for its design, form and composition. The building design has been influenced by the Gothic, Tudor and Edwardian traditions, modified by a colonial approach to suit the new country. The style, scale and visual presentation of the College was unique in this part of Wellington and remains one of a handful of schools built in this way. The layout of the building, floor to floor, indicates a close attention to the practices and requirements of a convent school. From the traffic to classrooms and Chapel to the movement of laundry, the extended building was designed to accommodate school life and can greatly inform us today.
The chapel and convent were designed by the same architect to function as a single architectural entity. The magnificent interior of the Chapel is one of the finest New Zealand spaces built in the Gothic tradition. It is remarkable for its windows and structural embellishments, its furniture, its acoustics, the quality of light and the soaring immensity, and the paradoxically-intimate devotional space that has been formed.
The additions made later to the complex are of limited significance. While early additions followed the architectural language of the College, later building has imposed on and diminished the architectural standing of the Convent Building. Nevertheless the Gymnasium, the Lisieux Wing and the Coen Wing show the continued development of the College.
Technological Significance or Value:
Erskine College has technological value as one of the earliest masonry and partly-reinforced buildings. The Convent, completed in the first decade of the 20th century, and Chapel construction some years later, both pre-dated the surge in reinforced masonry design that occurred after the Napier earthquake and show an assertive approach by the architect to the structural integrity of the new buildings.
Specific elements that have technological interest include: the load-bearing brick masonry walls including a concreted reinforced bond beam at each floor; the timber construction of roof trusses, internal floors and walls; the open cage lift and machinery still in operation; the joinery -windows, doors, cupboards and finishing timbers; the impressive German stained glass windows; the expansive space constructed for the Chapel; and the plaster decorative detailing both internal and external.
Cultural Significance or Value:
Erskine College (Former) has unique cultural significance as a complex of buildings constructed to house a college instituted by the Society of the Sacred Heart, an international society with strong links to the French culture of its founding sisters. The education provided was characteristic of the education provided at Sacré Coeur schools worldwide, with an emphasis on religion and character interwoven with French vocabulary and traditions unique to the Sacred Heart way of life.
The Chapel of the Sacred Heart has long been venerated not only for the beauty of its interior but also for the magnificent acoustics of the space. As such it has been the venue for many musical performances, including choral and piano recitals by international groups such as the Vienna Boys' Choir, as well as countless other performers. The other buildings of the former Erskine College complex have, since the closure of the school, also hosted a wide range of cultural events including the International Festival of the Arts and the Globe Theatre's Shakespeare's Tapestries exhibition, and have been the studio and rehearsal space for numerous artists, dancers, musicians and filmmakers. The cultural value of Erskine College is enhanced by The Learning Connexion International School of Art & Creativity's 12-year tenancy of the place, which has seen hundreds of people use its spaces to inspire their own creative expression.
Social Significance or Value:
Erskine College (Former) is of outstanding social significance. Through its 79-year period as one of Wellington's few Catholic girls' boarding schools it played a major role in developing the characters of nearly 3000 students, who have since gone on to spread the Sacred Heart values into their communities. The 1998 reunion demonstrated the immense feeling of fellowship and common identity shared by alumnae, religious and former staff, and the two books published in response are further evidence of their special attachment to the very fabric and features of the entire Erskine College site. The community connection extends further through the school's historical associations with the Marists and other Catholic parishes and schools, and more recent use as a venue for weddings, funerals and other events.
The massive community esteem for Erskine College (Former) is very clearly demonstrated by the fight to save the main college building and protect the site. This has involved the considerable time, effort and money of a large number of people over 17 years, who all maintain they would feel a great sense of loss if the Erskine complex - in particular the main convent building, the chapel, and the grounds - were to be damaged or destroyed. The formation of the Save Erskine College Trust lends the site further social value; being the first non-governmental heritage protection authority in New Zealand they have also successfully applied for and upheld a heritage protection order for the property.
Spiritual Significance or Value:
Constructed to be a place of Catholic worship and retreat for generations of students, religious, and the wider community, the Erskine College site has great spiritual significance and value. Daily life at the school was steeped in religion, with various public spaces in the buildings and grounds dedicated to worship. As well, the complex was used extensively for the private spiritual contemplation of the nuns and students. Feast celebrations such as the procession of Christ the King have also seen the wider community make use of the site, attending benedictions at altars within the school grounds. The chapel spaces, including the widely venerated Chapel of the Sacred Heart, have been the site of countless individual and collective spiritual celebrations such as First Communions, the beatification and canonisation ceremonies of two Sacré Coeur religious, weddings, funerals and regular Catholic masses.
(a) The extent to which the place reflects important or representative aspects of New Zealand history:
Erskine College (Former) is an important site which reflects the development of Catholic education in New Zealand, actioned by Bishop Francis Redwood as a result of the Education Act of 1877. It is particularly significant as one of only two sites which remain to represent the work of the Society of the Sacred Heart in New Zealand.
(b) The association of the place with events, persons, or ideas of importance in New Zealand history:
Erskine College (Former) is associated with a number of people or organisations of importance in New Zealand history. Founded at the invitation of Bishop Francis Redwood, who would later become an Archbishop, the school represents Redwood's great involvement with the development of Catholic education in New Zealand. It is also significant for its association with noted architect John Sydney Swan, whose design of the most noteworthy buildings on the site stand out amongst a career which saw him become a well-respected and prominent architect in central New Zealand. The place is also of great importance for its enduring links with the Society of the Sacred Heart, as the second convent school instituted by them in New Zealand as part of their international mission.
(e) The community association with, or public esteem for the place:
Erskine College (Former) is the subject of massive community esteem, held in extremely high regard not only by local Island Bay residents for its prominent contribution to the townscape, but also by the huge numbers of people associated with the site - Sacré Coeur alumnae, religious and former staff, heritage professionals, those who have used the buildings since Erskine College's closure and many other interested parties - who have advocated for the preservation of the place. The Chapel of the Sacred Heart is particularly well-renowned for the beauty of its interior and holds a special place in the hearts of the many who have attended ceremonies, performances and celebrations there. The formation and authorisation of the Save Erskine College Trust as New Zealand's first non-governmental heritage protection authority, along with the approval of the heritage order on the site, proves the esteem for the place at an official and national level.
(f) The potential of the place for public education:
The size and previous uses of the complex as an educational facility and venue for creative and performing arts suggest the strong potential for Erskine College to be used for something similar in the future, which would again bring many more people through the buildings. The Chapel regularly hosts ceremonies and functions which attract an audience for presentations on the history of the site and its story of Catholic education in New Zealand, and more specifically, the work of the Society of the Sacred Heart. The widely publicised long-held battle to retain the main convent building has further raised the public profile of the site. The published reminiscences of former students and staff offer a valuable contextual insight into the unique culture and traditions of life at a Sacred Heart boarding school, and add to Erskine College's potential for public education.
(g) The technical accomplishment or value, or design of the place:
Erskine College (Former) is notable as an early example of reinforced masonry construction and for the technical accomplishment of its design. Features of specific technical interest such as those discussed above have provided structural integrity to the main convent building and Chapel of the Sacred Heart for many decades, and offer an opportunity for the study of pre-Napier earthquake reinforced construction techniques.
(h) The symbolic or commemorative value of the place:
Erskine College (Former) is of high commemorative value as a physical symbol of the work of the Society of the Sacred Heart in New Zealand. The buildings, including additions, tell of the expansion of the school as the educational work of the society developed. The complex is of high commemorative value as specific buildings are named after significant Sacré Coeur religious, including former Superior General of the Society Mother Janet Erskine Stuart, who inspired the renaming of the entire college. The Norfolk pine she planted in the grounds also stands to commemorate her and her achievements. The Chapel of the Sacred Heart contains many relics and chattels (e.g. stained glass windows) associated with donors and venerated members of the Catholic community - local and worldwide.
(j) The importance of identifying rare types of historic places:
The convent is the oldest surviving building of the four Catholic girls' boarding schools instituted by the Society of the Sacred Heart in New Zealand, and one of only two that remain to demonstrate the unique characteristics of the religious belief and traditions of the Society. It is the oldest original college building in Wellington, and a fine example of the work of noted architect John Sydney Swan, whose surviving designs are becoming rarer with the passing of time.
Summary of Significance or Values:
This place was assessed against, and found it to qualify under the following criteria: a, b, e, f, g, h, j.
It is considered that this place qualifies as a Category I historic place.
Erskine College (Former) is of outstanding heritage significance. As a now-rare physical testament to the work of the Society of the Sacred Heart in New Zealand, the place tells a story of the development of Catholic education in this country and is associated with numerous significant historical figures as well as being a place of worship, spiritual retreat and celebration for generations of pupils and Sacré Coeur religious, some of whom are commemorated within the site. The subject of huge community esteem, the place is held in extremely high regard by former alumnae, members of the Catholic community, local Island Bay residents, heritage professionals and other interested parties. The high social value of the place is most strongly demonstrated by the extensive campaign to protect the entire site, which was spearheaded by the formation of the Save Erskine College Trust and its official approval as New Zealand's only non-government heritage protection authority.
The main convent building, Chapel of the Sacred Heart and associated additions are also of special architectural, cultural, technological and aesthetic significance as fine examples of the work of prominent architect John Sydney Swan. The Chapel in particular is regarded as the finest Gothic interior in New Zealand, and its elegant proportions an offer exceptional acoustic quality which has seen many notable musical performances. The other buildings of the complex also have lasting associations with many cultural activities, having been used as the site for the creation of various artistic activities and as a venue for some high profile cultural events.
Erskine College Main Block and Chapel of the Sacred Heart were built as part of the Catholic girls' boarding school, Convent of the Sacred Heart (Sacré Coeur). The secondary school was founded by the Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, an institution of religious women devoted in particular to the work of education. Founded in Paris in 1800 by Madeleine-Sophie Barat, the Society was formed as part of a reaction to the suppression of religious orders during the French Revolution. Focusing on the education of the girls, the convents the society instituted eventually spread throughout Europe and North America, Algeria, Chile and Australasia.
The Society of the Sacred Heart came to New Zealand in 1880 from the St Louis vicariate in the USA. Many of the Society's initial convents in Europe had lately closed due to unstable political environments, and this encouraged their efforts to extend their institutions overseas. The Society extended itself to New Zealand at the invitation of Bishop Francis Redwood, who had four years earlier also brought brothers of the French Marist teaching order to Wellington to set up primary schools for boys. New Zealand's Education Act of 1877 had introduced free, compulsory and secular primary education, removing government support for Catholic parish-based schools and forcing religious schools to rely on their own means and seek other support. Bishop Redwood became very involved in finding ways to institute quality Catholic education in his diocese.
The first contingent of Sacré Coeur nuns was sent to Timaru, and in 1880 opened New Zealand's first convent of the Sacred Heart there. By the 1890s Bishop Redwood, by now Archbishop, expressed interest in assisting the Society to found a convent school in Wellington - a boarding school in order to provide for the Catholic education of country girls - and offered for use a property he had recently inherited. This plan fell through, however, and was postponed until 1902, when the Archbishop again renewed his efforts to have a girls' boarding school of the Sacred Heart in his diocese.
Island Bay was, at the turn of the twentieth century, somewhat of a seaside resort for Wellington residents, with scattered houses, two hotels and a large Chinese market garden along the western side of the valley. The southernmost suburb of Wellington, it was named after the island of Tapu te Ranga (Wahi Tapu, Record no. 7654) just off the coast, which had been an important Ngati Ira pa until the 1820s. Caves along the headland were also said to have sheltered tangata whenua from marauding war parties in times of conflict, and terraces, middens and other sites of Maori occupation have also been recorded in the areas along the coastline. In the 1880s farmland in the area had been subdivided for settlement, and the tram network reached the suburb in 1905, furthering its appeal as the location for the new school.
A two-hectare (20,000m2) site on the eastern side of the valley in Island Bay was chosen by nuns from the Timaru convent and purchased from landowner Samuel Wright in July 1902 for £1000, but for a while it seemed the plans would be postponed in order to establish a school in Sydney instead. The organising clergy then aimed towards a day school, but were finally granted permission to build a new boarding school house on the Island Bay site. While excavation and construction of the new building was carried out an eight-roomed house was rented in Avon Street, and was a small convent and boarding school from 1905-1906. Founding sisters were Mother Spadaccini, Mother Bourdeaux, Mother Maude Lennon and Sister Cullen - women who came from Europe, Ireland and Australia and brought their own international cultural influences to the education they provided.
The new four-storey building was designed by noted Wellington architect John Sydney Swan, who had until then been working in partnership with Frederick de Jersey Clere. The Sacred Heart convent at Island Bay was the earliest in a series of major solo commissions for the Catholic Church for which Swan became well known, including St Gerard's Church on Mt Victoria in 1908-10 (Record no. 226, Category I historic place), Our Lady of Compassion Convent, Island Bay (1908-21), St Mary's Presbytery (1913, Record no. 7756) and Sacred Heart Convent in Wanganui (1911), and St Bede's School in Christchurch (designed with his brother in 1919). In partnership with various others John Swan was also responsible for the design of a number of other significant commercial, educational and domestic buildings, making him one of the more important Wellington architects of the early 20th century.
Builder H. Ranson began work on the convent in December 1904, the contract being worth an estimated £15,588. Archbishop Redwood laid a commemorative marble plaque next to the front door in May 1905. The new building was ready to receive its first pupils in February 1906, but construction was not fully completed until 1909. These final stages of construction were carried out in two stages, in 1907 and 1909, but for the first three years of the building's life the unfinished top floor was appreciated by staff and students as an excellent covered sports venue. At its opening, the convent school became the first Catholic girls' boarding school in Wellington, and only the second Catholic girls' college in the region.
The main building shows influences of Gothic, Tudor, Edwardian and Romanesque architectural styles, adapted to include a New Zealand colonial touch - for example the wooden verandahs which feature on the main west elevation. The interior makes extensive use of native and imported timbers and the banisters of the main stairwell feature cross motifs carried through from exterior of building. All windows on the south face of the building were glazed with double-sash windows, as extra protection against the southerlies blowing in from Island Bay. However, alumnae still remember the biting cold of winter and how they made their way down the corridors by running from one gas heater to the next. The character of the building design also made an impression on generations of its inhabitants, many of whom have fond memories of its grand scale while others recall the school building as being a 'stern' 'Peaked Grey Fortress', perhaps associating it with their homesickness or the general discipline of boarding school life.
The Convent of the Sacred Heart at Island Bay followed the standardised education plan that was drawn up by Mother Barat as early as 1805, and in this way was linked to all Sacred Heart schools worldwide. The plan of studies was periodically revised but remained in worldwide use until 1958, when national requirements and cultural variations saw its role reduce to more of a spiritual influence rather than educational prescription. However, the hallmarks of a Sacred Heart education were consistent at the Island Bay college from its beginnings, with an emphasis on religion and character and classes in logic, ethics, history of art and architecture, philosophy, astronomy and ontology offered in addition to the standard academic subjects. The French cultural influence was strong, even in the everyday vocabulary of school life, and music and drama 'played such a large part in the life of the school that justice cannot really be done in words.' As well, physical education was provided for and encouraged, with the cricket pitch playing ‘a vital part in school life.'
Boarders and day pupils also made good use of the surrounding environment, regularly making climbing expeditions around the gorse-covered hills of Island Bay and swimming at the beach. The Society eventually obtained all of the land in the block now formed by Melbourne Road and Mace, Avon and Volga streets. Early photographs show the convent building (with the associated primary school of St Madeleine Sophie adjacent to the west) surrounded by undeveloped hills, and over time the nuns developed the grounds to incorporate large gardens and a farmyard area for the cows and other animals kept help to support the school. Students of the college, which was a private school, came from affluent families from all around New Zealand, and the farm surrounding helped to assuage some of the homesickness of children from rural areas.
Many past pupils have especially vivid and fond memories of the many feast day celebrations, including the processions to Our Lady of Lourdes Grotto in the school grounds, the feast of the Society's own Madonna, Mater Admirabilis, who was honoured with her own chapel in the college, and the Procession of the Lanterns on the Feast of the Sacred Heart. The feast of Christ the King was one on a grand scale, involving the wider community from parishes and Catholic schools all over Wellington, who would process around the Sacred Heart grounds attending Benedictions at three altars prepared by the children. Throughout its operation at Island Bay the Society of the Sacred Heart maintained a strong relationship with the Wellington Marist community. School chaplains were Marist priests who split their chaplaincy with that of St Patricks Catholic boys' boarding school, and the two boarding schools also maintained an intercollegiate bond.
The original convent building has been added to over the years. The first addition to the building was a two-storey extension to the north façade, known as St Anthony's Block. Completed in 1916, this area was used mainly for recreation, with the upper floor containing a series of cells for students to practise the piano in. An earthquake in the early 1940s reportedly ‘shook the piano rooms block off the main building by about one foot.' Parents gave generously for other additions, such as a two-storey addition to the east side of the convent building in 1921 (which later had another story added to it), and as the school grew the facilities were expanded further by the addition of a wooden accommodation block, known as the Lisieux Wing, in 1949; a gymnasium and classroom block in 1957; and the Coen Wing of accommodation, science laboratories and kitchen/laundry was added in 1967. A cage lift was installed in the main building in 1927 and is still in operation today.
Perhaps the most significant addition to the school complex, and certainly the most celebrated, occurred in 1929-30. From the founding days of the school, a large chapel space had been included in the main building, as well as a smaller chapel dedicated to Mater Admirabilis. However, in the late 1920s a much larger chapel was designed to adjoin the original school building to the south east, with access only through the corridors of the main convent building. The foundation stone was once more laid by Archbishop Redwood, on 5 May 1929, and the Opening Mass was celebrated by Archbishop O'Shea on 26 October 1930.
John Sydney Swan was again called upon to design the new chapel, and his design was reportedly influenced by the Sacré Coeur Sisters who were ‘steeped in the knowledge and love of French Gothic architecture as a fitting temple of God.' The finished structure today still has a deserved reputation as ‘one of the finest Gothic spaces in New Zealand.' The soaring vaulted ceiling forms a high ribbed canopy over a light and airy space of undeniable beauty, the impact enhanced by the elongated stringers and slender half columns spaced along the walls. The twelve stained glass windows along each side were brought out from Mayers in Munich over several years, once donations were raised for each. John Sydney Swan himself donated the central window, above the magnificent white Carrara marble altar, demonstrating his attachment to a complex which he had designed much of over the years.
The altar is finely detailed, its high quality Gothic-styled carving crafted in Italy, and houses relics of several saints, including St Madeleine Sophie. The gilded tabernacle door is inset with rubies, diamonds and moonstones, and finely carved marble shrines, Gothic-style timber panelling, pews and stalls, and statuary from Mayer of Munich add to the awe-inspiring and elegant richness of the chapel's interior decoration. The immaculate proportions of the interior have created a space still widely renowned for its acoustic excellence, with many noted performers, including the Vienna Boys Choir, appreciating the ‘extraordinary clarity and long reverberant time' of the space over the years. As well as being the location for countless First Communions and other individual and collective celebrations, the chapel spaces have also been witness to ceremonies celebrating two members of the Sacré Coeur order: foundress St Madeleine-Sophie Barat was beatified in 1908 and canonised in 1925, as was St Philippine Duchesne (beatified 1940, canonised 1988).
The 1960s heralded a change in the Sacré Coeur school culture. One of the changes proposed by the Second Vatican Council (Vatican II, 1963-1965) called for more collaboration with lay people, and at the Island Bay convent school this was reflected in increased numbers of lay staff. Increasing confusion with Sacred Heart College in Lower Hutt led to the change in name for the school, and in the late 1960s ‘Erskine College' was chosen in honour of former Superior General of the Society, Mother Janet Erskine Stuart, who had visited the Island Bay campus in 1914 and planted a Norfolk pine, which still flourishes in the Reverend Mother's Garden today alongside other well established trees planted in the early days of the school.
From this time onwards, Erskine College became more integrated into the state schooling system. Reflecting the winds of change, the Society of the Sacred Heart also became more open, with the relaxing of the nun's lifestyle of enclosure (which previously had rarely seen them leave the confines of the school grounds), and eventually granting permission to wear ordinary dress instead of the traditional nun's habit. Financial strains were beginning to become more serious, however, and although school fees were not cheap, being a private school meant that the school was largely dependent on funding from these and donations. Declining rolls added to the pressure.
The first announcement of Erskine's closure came in 1970; a strategic decision not lightly made by the Society of the Sacred Heart, due to lack of resources to maintain the teacher's college, three independent schools and two parish schools they were at that time maintaining in New Zealand. However, in a precursor to the massive community support that would be later demonstrated in the battle to save the Erskine convent building from demolition, a large community of parents, college staff, alumnae and friends rallied in a show of ‘incredible dedication' to keep the school running. This was achieved through the formation of an Incorporated Society (Erskine College Inc.), managed by a Board of Governors, which ran the school for another 15 years until its final closure in 1985.
The catalyst for the ultimate closure of Erskine College was apparently the proposed cost of strengthening the main college building against earthquakes, which was considered to be insurmountable. Thus ended the 79-year operation of a college that, at its time of opening, had been one of the few secondary schools in Wellington, and in which nearly 3000 girls had been educated - many of whom had become prominent in the community after their graduation. A 1993 feasibility study for the future of the convent building expressed that ‘Erskine College has played a leading role in the education of many New Zealand women - including members of some of the nation's most prominent families - whose combined, cultural, economic, social and artistic contribution to the development of Aotearoa is inestimable.'
Today the scale and stateliness of the Erskine College complex stands as a lasting reminder of the community of Sacré Coeur girls' boarding schools in New Zealand. The original Timaru convent had closed its doors in 1933 and has since been demolished; Cottesmore College in Christchurch was only in operation between 1963 and 1976; and today the Society's educational work is only continued in New Zealand by Baradene College in Auckland, which closed its boarding section in 1985. All of the founding buildings of Wellington's other historic secondary schools have since been demolished, leaving the Erskine College main convent building to now be the oldest surviving purpose-built secondary school building in Wellington. A reunion of Erskine alumnae held in 1998 was attended by 800 old girls and resulted in the publication of two books, both of which include reminiscences arranged by room or areas of the college, demonstrating the depth of their emotional connection to the fabric and spaces of the complex. Kennedy writes that:
‘The dramatically successful reunion of religious, staff and alumnae in June 1998 confirmed the enduring legacy of Erskine College/Sacre Coeur...[celebrating] friendship, shared memories, certainly, as well as customs and traditions, within a great Tradition. Most of all, though, we celebrate an education that encouraged us to think and question, to look beyond the immediate fact or event for a deeper and broader meaning.'
Walsh also records alumna Claudia Wysocki's Reunion Address, in which she expresses the continuing attachment of many to the place: ‘I feel too, that since the closure of Erskine in 1985, perhaps our sense of belonging to the school has grown stronger, often it is those things in life that we no longer have that we come to appreciate the more.'
The Erskine complex was purchased by the New Zealand Hibernian Australasian Catholic Benefit Society in 1986, which parcelled off land around the edges of the site and sold it for residential housing. The Hibernian Society planned to eventually develop the Erskine site as a retirement village. In the meantime the chapel was used by the Pope Pius X society, the Lisieux block was rented as accommodation, and various tenants made use of the main convent building, most of whom had a common focus on the creative and performing arts. By 1992 the Erskine complex was being regularly used as studio and performance space by a large number of artists, dance and theatre companies, puppeteers, film makers (the convent building featured as a location in Peter Jackson's film The Frighteners), musicians and as a venue for high profile events such as the International Festival of the Arts and the Shakespeare Society's Globe tapestries exhibition, which brought thousands of people to the buildings.
In 1992, however, the Hibernian Society submitted an application for resource consent to strengthen the chapel walls, which would be needed if the other part of the proposed work was carried out: the demolition of the main convent building. This proposal stirred up a huge amount of feeling amongst the community, and local Island Bay residents, heritage professionals, college alumnae, users of the convent and chapel buildings and other appreciators of the heritage of the Erskine complex banded together to advocate for the retention of the convent building and preservation of the Erskine site. Conservation architect Ian Bowman argued that:
‘The removal of one of the main elements of the design would seriously compromise the design of the whole complex of buildings on the site...The removal of the college will sever physical, historical and architectural links which have great significance to the college and will greatly reduce the significance of the chapel. The demolition will remove a building of rare design in New Zealand and by a significant architect of the period.'
Esteem for the main building and whole complex was so strong that a group called Save Erskine College Trust (SECT) was formed, and successfully applied to become the first non-government heritage protection authority under s188 of the Resource Management Act 1991. SECT has since had a heritage protection order placed upon the site, prohibiting the alteration, modification, damage, removal or demolition of any of the buildings, structures or trees, shrubs or natural growth within the grounds, by anyone without their authority. In response to the public notification of this application, 66 submissions were received in support of the heritage order and only two in opposition, again illustrating the huge value the community places on the Erskine College site. The main building remains in situ.
The perceived financial viability of the Erskine site has been demonstrated by the interest shown by prospective purchasers over the years. In 1994 local businessman Victor Cattermole attempted to purchase the Erskine complex, but the transaction was not completed. In 1996 another group of interested individuals, including Jonathan Milne of The Learning Connexion International School of Art and Creativity, also proposed to buy the complex, but could not raise the necessary funds. However, The Learning Connexion leased the college (apart from the Chapel) from 1996 until 2009, utilising the entire campus for a creative arts institution with some accommodation.
Property developer Ian Cassels and his company Property Link (Developments) Ltd have owned the Erskine College site since 2000, and have refurbished the entrance and associated spaces of the Chapel, creating a venue with a large reception room, new bathroom and kitchen facilities suitable for hosting weddings, funerals and other functions. A new main entrance to the Chapel complex - now used separately from the rest of the college buildings - was installed to the south side of the buildings. The main convent building is still in need of refurbishment and maintenance, and it and the Chapel are yet to be earthquake-strengthened, but the future of the Erskine complex is currently in limbo following the end of The Learning Connexion's tenancy.
Architect: John Sydney Swan (Convent of the Sacred Heart, Chapel of the Sacred Heart)
Builder: H. Ranson (Convent of the Sacred Heart 1906)
Builder: John Moffat (top floor, Convent of the Sacred Heart, 1907)
Builder: H. Davis (remainder of top floor, Convent of the Sacred Heart, 1909)
Builder: C.J. Johnson (St Anthony's)
Architect: Swan Lawrence Swan and Hamilton (2-storeyed addition to the east side of the convent)
Builder: M Browman (2-storeyed addition to the east side of the convent)
Architect: Swan, Lawrence and Swan (third floor addition to 1921 block)
Builder: J.H. Myer (third floor addition to 1921 block)
Architect: B.F. Kelly (strengthening of St Anthony's)
Builder: Yeatts & Co. Ltd (strengthening of St Anthony's)
Architect: Kelly & Mair (Lisieux wing)
Builder: A.V. Swanson (Lisieux wing)
Architect: Haughton Son and Mair (gymnasium and addition to St Anthony's
Architect: Haughton and Mair (Coen wing)
Builder: A.V. Swanson & Sons Ltd (Coen wing)
Architect: Haughton Partnership (alterations to Lisieux wing 1980)
Builder: Robin Schwass Ltd (alterations to Lisieux wing 1980)
Architect: Athfield Architects
Erskine College stands on the eastern hills of Island Bay in Wellington, overlooking the community and valley. The site rises up from Avon Street with a drive sweeping up from Melbourne Road, curving before the main entrance to the college.
Behind the college, the hill rises steeply to the suburb of Melrose. On the valley floor, directly in front of the College is the gentle bustle of the Island Bay shopping centre. The direction north leads some 5 kilometres to Wellington City; to the south a kilometre away is Island Bay with its sandy beach and rocky coastline of Cook Strait.
The most prominent building of the complex is the 1906 main building, a large four storey plastered brick structure of symmetry and proportions that sets it apart from other buildings in the suburban neighbourhood. It looks over the valley and, with the other wings, buildings and extensions of the college, is somewhat concealed from most vantage points due to the established gardens and the now mature trees on the grounds. However, with its obvious architectural and somewhat romanticised grandeur, amid smaller scale residential buildings, Erskine College markedly contributes to the local townscape of Island Bay.
The original building of Erskine College has been enlarged by substantial extensions and detached buildings. Some of these changes were again altered as the site developed. Currently Erskine College comprises of the already-mentioned Convent Building (or Main Block) including St Anthony's Wing, the Chapel of the Sacred Heart, Coen Wing, Lisieux Wing, and the Gymnasium. These buildings stand among the tranquil surroundings of the well-established plantings, including the Reverend Mother's Garden.
Approaching the College by either the drive, or walking through the gardens below, brings the most architecturally demonstrative building of Erskine College into close view. The 1906 Convent Building (or Main Building), with the vertical proportions and roof forms of the Gothic style, is the building that defines the exterior of the complex. While it does not hold the most impressive of internal spaces (that role lies with the Chapel addition), the proportions and symmetry of the west elevation are striking in scale, elegance and grandeur. The entrance is centred and flanked by full-height gabled wings. These wings contain the essentials of the decorative presentation of the Convent Building: the half-timbered Tudor-influenced gables; rectangular, paned Edwardian-styled windows; Romanesque-influenced tall rounded windows; a centred niche and Sacré Coeur emblem (two hearts encircled by lilies), negatively-formed crosses and engaged columns - one below the other on successive floors; and all formed in a symmetry of its own. Between the wings the simplest of the windows are in the front wall, set back and embellished by timbered verandas at each level and three dormers at the fourth level - all reinforcing the importance of this view by mirrored features and detailing.
Constructed with brick and reinforced concrete, the building is robust and solid in appearance behind its decoration. The exterior is predominantly light grey plastered brick that has weathered in an elegant way and is complimented by the off-white timber joinery of the verandas, gables and window frames. Each floor level is marked with horizontal plinth detailing, at the point of the structurally reinforced bond beam. The roof is steeply pitched and iron- clad. Most of the original chimneys, evident in early photos, have been removed.
Around the building (when seen between and around the additions) the other elevations do not have the same extent of elaborate detailing. The fenestration becomes more slender and elongated with similar joinery to the front façade. The regularity of the windows and dormer timbered gables modulate the high solidity of the form. While the three other main facades of this H-plan building are less intricate, they are still sufficiently grand, with high-quality detailing emphasising architectural merit, to allow an impressive view on all sides.
St Anthony's Wing and the Gymnasium Extension;
To the left and right are extensions to the building. To the left on the north side is the St Anthony's Wing added 1916. It would have resembled the Convent aesthetically, although disturbing the previously symmetrical design. It has since been almost entirely surrounded by the 1957 classroom and gymnasium extension. The extension stands two storeys high, with red brick exterior walls in parts and plastered concrete in others. It is Modern in style with no visual correlation to the Convent. It is strongly rectangular - solid walls facing west; the windows in the north wall set back in the Modern style. It is an abrupt edge to the driveway entrance and visitor carpark. A bold cross of coloured glass in a prominent north window shows religious purpose.
Erskine Chapel or the Chapel of the Sacred Heart;
To the right are the extensive additions that were made to form Erskine Chapel and its associated foyers and classrooms.
The Chapel added to the south side of the Convent Building in 1930 extends down to the front edge of the Convent Building, a two level addition, at this point, and built to match. The main entrance to the Chapel is now through double doors from the drive rising on the southern side of the site, an entrance replacing the original internal points of entry from the Convent Building. The east end of the Chapel is up against a steep embankment planted with shrubs and trees. Residential properties are in close proximity to the east and south. To the north the Chapel is adjacent to a well maintained garden and courtyard, currently in use for weddings and other functions.
The Chapel extension is a large, long and fairly simply presented. Its exterior gives only hints of the magnificence of the interior: stained glass windows are arranged on the upper part of the exterior with hood moulds over the windows; the high steep roof suggests an impressive interior space; rhythmic buttressing extends the length of the nave; the five-sided apse projecting at the east end; gables, with high crosses, a niche and quatrefoil window, mark the transepts. A rectangular stout section of the building projecting from the Chapel north wall houses supporting spaces. The Chapel is constructed to aesthetically complement the Convent with the use of brick finished in grey plaster and timber framed detailing.
The Coen Wing (opened in 1967, and named after Mother Evangelista (Lista) Coen, former Superior of the convent) is a rectangular block with the main axis running North-South and attached to the north-east corner of the Convent Building. The architectural style is Modern with no reference to the Gothic style of the Convent and Chapel. It is a four storey building with a simple exterior of concrete construction, plaster finish, aluminium windows and minimal decorative detailing. Used as a science and dormitory block, the interior is similarly Modern in influence - plain ceilings, panel-boarded walls and minimal decorative elaboration.
Separated by a short distance, but connected via an over-bridge corridor to the Coen Wing, is the northernmost building - the Lisieux Wing. This 1947 building was relocated from further south on the site to its current position in 1983. It is a long two storey timber villa, clad in weatherboards, low roof and simple rectangular windows. It was a boarding establishment for the school.
It is a typically residential apartment building of its time - modestly presented, timber framed, arrayed rooms either side of a central corridor on both levels; communal rooms and stairways at the ends. The interior is simply fitted out, one window per room, one set of joinery per room. It is typical of residential buildings of its period and apart from some joinery removals and a wall removal (unsupported), there appears to have been little changed. There is a car park to the north, accessible off the driveway.
Reverend Mother's Garden: The old cast iron gates and fences, and stone walls mark the original pedestrian entrance to the property on the Melbourne Road boundary. The paved path through the Reverend Mother's Garden has three flights of straight concrete steps up the hill to the main entrance of the Convent. Although slightly unruly today, the magnificence of the gardens is still present and is emphasised by the now sizable mature trees such as Pohutukawa, a Norfolk pine and native shrubs.
Our Lady of Lourdes Grotto: A garden grotto is located on the embankment to the North of the site, adjacent to the Northern driveway. It consists of a shrine with mosaic stone work where the statue of the Virgin Mary use to stand. The Northern end of the property is quite thick with trees, and a flight of concrete steps lead up to a grassy plateau.
Interior of the Convent Building;
The College is entered through the main entrance of the Convent Building. When seen in plan view the Convent Building is roughly H shaped, with extensive additions that add a confusing complexity to the movement around the college.
The Convent Building has four floors. Generally the shape and layout of each floor is similar: the floor plan is a square with an indented main entrance and a cut-out part at the rear to form a services and light well. The result is an H plan.
On each floor, the room layout has similarities. The central and ancillary stairways rise through the building at the same locations, one above the other. Hallways follow a similar pattern on all floors, a minimised H, following the floor plan with rooms either side.
The supporting structure of room division means that generally spaces on each level broadly follow the same pattern, before they are then subdivided as necessary. Either side of the stairway in the visible indent of the H, for example, on each level are sizeable rooms which on the lower two floors were originally parlours or receiving rooms and on the upper two levels were classrooms. The similarities of these parlours and classrooms do not extend generally however and the structural compartments are divided variously according to their role. The building is therefore comprised of around 120 spaces or rooms, most of them unique. Some still retain original plaques which name the rooms after Catholic saints.
The wings of the H (these feature prominently on the west face) are structurally large single compartments, mostly divided, and were for: kitchen, dining and parlour rooms on the ground floor; classrooms and assembly rooms (the first chapel and subsequently reception room and assembly) on the first floor; a few classrooms, a dormitory and staff rooms at the second floor; and full dormitories and the infirmary at the topmost level, the third floor.
On the inside of the H shape - least seen and with limited light but easy proximity to plumbing and drainage services - are the many smaller rooms given to supporting the activities of the building - bathrooms, various store cupboards and sculleries, dispensaries, place of punishment, the occasional staff room, further smaller flights of stairs and the lift. In the third floor corridor there remains a row of wardrobe cubicles lining the wall, with spaces for storing each boarder's hats, shoes, coats and other belongings.
Thus, around 120 rooms of the Convent Building provided a complete living and working environment for pupils, teachers and household staff: school administration and the dining were at the lowest level; classrooms and assembly rooms (generally), above; and the top two floors predominantly accommodation. At each level, the services and service rooms were built in an intricate jumble of smaller spaces.
It is notable that the design of the building limited any truancy. To go outside from either the dormitories or classrooms, girls must pass by stairways and halls occupied the sisters. Notwithstanding what emergency routes out of the building may have been used, there were few entrances designed into this building and the ones that exist could be easily monitored. Further, the layout of the dormitories and bedrooms suggests a careful consideration of the ratio of pupils to adults and appropriate locations.
Several rooms and features are useful for particular mention.
The Main Stairway (G1, F1, S1 & T1): From the ground floor to the top level, the flights of stairs and their lobbies are finely detailed and in good condition given their age and use. The flights begin at ground level, broad and easy, with two long flights and a short connecting flight beneath west windows.
Newel posts are square-arched with negatively detailed crosses carved in to the sides. Handrails are turned; balusters are square with reeded edges. A dado rail runs the entire height. The stairs, balustrading and window frames are heart rimu. Internal windows enclose some portions of stairway. Windows at each level are large and provide ample light. On most stair windows, the transom features fine carving. At the first floor the stair opens out to an extended lobby (museum space) supported by timber beams and a slender lightly-detailed post.
There is some change as height is gained: the addition of winders and a decrease in detailing of attendant joinery. However the impression is of a continuous and complete climb.
Pink Parlour (G18): This parlour is typical of the large parlours of the ground floor. It is a generous reception room, high-ceilinged with four tall windows, round-arched in the Romanesque style. The floor is matai; the walls as part of the structure of the building are plastered brick; the doors are six-panelled; and a finely moulded decorative dado decorates the walls. In this room, the fireplace is of later design.
Other parlours vary in their smaller size and fewer windows, however all have easy proportions and location, good light and, originally if not at present, a fireplace.
Main Dining Room (G6): This room was once designed as the School Refectory and the Sisters' Room, and these two rooms are combined now to form the Dining Room. It is a large room entered from the main ground floor hall. Large windows face the west and from early photographs it can be seen that several windows and a door also faced north. The main additional feature on the north side of this room (originally) was this entrance, directly up from the forecourt to the refectory and the stairway on the north side - a projection from the building with a crenelated parapet. This projection has now been absorbed into the gymnasium additions however the opening remains. Further, the early adjacent additions of St Anthony's Wing can also be seen from within - brick walls with infilled round-arched window openings.
A further notable feature of the room is the pulpit balcony, formed from rimu joinery in a similar manner to the Chapel pulpit, a three sided, panelled vantage point where young girls (for its height is no greater) could speak. The access is via an elegantly winding stair in a vestibule off the hall.
Reception Room, Assembly Hall and Library (F16 & F17): On the first floor, taking up the entire southern wing is a large open space divided into two spaces with a hall between, using high timber concertina dividing doors. Timber floors and skirtings help create an impressive room that is spacious and elegant with little decorative assistance.
At the time of the adjacent Chapel design, the space nearest the main west façade was used as the Library and the greater part of the space was the Chapel. With the construction of a new chapel, this space became a Reception Room and Assembly Hall. A stage with a proscenium arch was constructed at the east end.
The south wall of the entire space, which was once the exterior wall of the Convent Building and still bears its exterior windows, was enclosed when the building was extended as part of the Chapel works. This formed an enclosed walkway - a loggia of sorts, known as 'The Cloister' - leading directly to the new Chapel stairway and the new Chapel on the floor above.
Currently the loggia exists but is divided - two thirds being an extension of the Assembly Hall with a staff room and one third being the entrance way to the Chapel complex.
St Madeleine Sophie's Classroom (F4 & F5): This large classroom is a space divided in two by high timber dividing doors, timber panelled on the lower half and glazed panes above. It is typical of the classrooms but is one of the largest. The two divided rooms are simple rectangular spaces with high ceilings and large timber windows giving ample light. The matai floor with rimu skirting and dado rail are in relief to the white plaster finishes of the exterior structural walls and interior timber partitions. Large multi-paned internal timber windows give visibility between the classrooms and the hall. Blackboards are installed at each end.
Immaculate Conception Dormitory, 3rd Form Dormitory (T3) and Verandah: The dormitory is on the north end of the third floor. While this space is largely filled with exhibition furniture, the original dormitory block is completely legible with large windows, a fireplace at the west end (cleverly concealed on the exterior behind the cross), and remnants of the timber joinery of an accommodation cubicle. The space is large and north facing, giving the benefits of sunlight and sun warmth. The layout and design of this room is repeated on the floor below, in the Sacred Heart Dormitory for 4th form boarders.
At each level a veranda is accessed by a door or window. In this dormitory, a door gives access on to the timber veranda at the front of the building. The verandas are constructed with timber joists, match-lined ceiling, curved timber lintels over posts. Decorative work to the posts is of a restrained Edwardian nature - simple mouldings and brackets. Lintels include curved or arched members - broadly post to post, and sharply post to wall - and supporting balusters from the floor above. The balustrading is simple square-dressed balusters, set on the diagonal.
Holy Child Dormitory (T20): This dormitory is located on the top floor, taking in the south wing of the H plan. It has been divided into the dormitory and further on, the infirmary rooms. The dormitory is distinguishable for the different shape of a space where it needs to tuck into the gable space at the top level. Most noticeable is the sloping ceiling and the intrusion of the massive roof beam connections into the dormitory. Windows facing west are similarly sized as on lower floors however the windows on the south wall are smaller (to fit beneath the gable eaves) and fitted with double-glazing sashes (to protect against the southerly weather).
Linen Room (S7): Of the many service rooms devoted to supporting the functions of the convent school, the Linen Room on the second floor is typical in many respects. It is one of the larger service rooms although not the largest - this would be the kitchen. Others of a similar size are also for forms of storage or are ablutions. Many service rooms are smaller.
Apart from the kitchen, service rooms are internal to the light well, and were before the Chapel additions - not a true light well in that it comprised three sides however it bordered the hillside and therefore rooms were limited in light and aspect.
The Linen Room is a generous room, big enough to fold sheets, with the continuing high ceilings and a narrow single window facing east but well inside the H. The walls are covered floor-to-ceiling with deep wide rimu cupboards, panelled doors and smoothly finished shelves inside, conjuring visions of voluminous quantities of linen. Access to the room is in both directions: northwards is the girls' dormitories and southwards is the lift and the many smaller rooms of the staff quarters.
Nun's Room (S17) Typical of the smaller nuns' quarters this a room on the south side of the building. The room is narrow, accommodating no more than a single bed and perhaps a cabinet, small table and chair - little more. An arched timber-trimmed window, with double hung sashes and a rounded toplight, is fitted with double-glazing panels. The window is squeezed by the wall partition in the left-hand corner as it maintains the exterior rhythm of the windows which has been the primary design intention. In this part of the building on the second floor, the south wing has been divided into many smaller rooms. Some are this small, others could take two beds while one is much larger again. All the while, the external rhythm of windows, important to the way the Convent Building is seen, is maintained.
Interior of the Chapel:
The Chapel extension is an irregular shaped addition which has been specifically designed to house particular spaces within the confines of the steep site and the proximity of the Convent Building. The entrance is via doors on the south side which opens into the lobby that once was the loggia or 'Cloisters' between the Convent Building and the Chapel. The ground floor of the Chapel Building is therefore the level of the Convent Building first floor.
To the east, through doors the timbered vestibule to the Chapel is an impressive room with a grand staircase with timber balustrading featuring a trefoil motif in its moulding and substantial newel posts. At the far end, locked doors lead to the space behind the Convent Building. Stained glass doors open onto the Mater's Chapel with high stained glass windows bearing M in an elaborate trefoil design of Art Deco influence. To the right, doors open onto the current function venue, once the Study Room and later the Library. This room is expansive and grand with high plain ceilings, sweeping timber floors and tall timber windows looking out south (to a limited view) and north to the garden. Internal timber windows connect this space to the vestibule with the lower panes covered with decorative film, seen elsewhere in the complex. This was once a classroom and the column in mid-space would have been part of the furniture rather than an apparent obstruction. It marks the support of the wall of the Chapel above.
Beyond the function room are the small compartments that made up the Priest's Flat. In their near original configuration, they now house the plating-up kitchens for the function centre. Stairs lead to the upper floor and the Chapel Sacristy, which contain moveable vestment furniture. This section of the building is the north transcept.
Upstairs, via the grand staircase in the vestibule, the narrow corridor of the Anteroom to the Chapel is reached, and beyond is the Chapel itself. The Chapel is one of the most remarkable Gothic-styled buildings in New Zealand. Its proportions are long, narrow and tall. The acoustics of the Chapel are gloriously clear and with a long reverberation time suited to the choral music tradition.
The interior of the building has features, surfaces and finishes that are superb. The plasterwork around doors, windows, columns and alcoves is finely detailed providing exquisite modulations of light around the interior. The plaster vaulting of the ceilings fans down onto slender decorated columns around the apse and through the nave. The Stations of the Cross are positioned beneath the vaults. Brilliant stained glass of German origin are set in lancet windows around the Chapel.
The Chapel is remarkable also for its fixtures. The statuary (including those flanking the entranceway), the altar and the cancelli in white marble are delicately carved in the (mainly) Gothic tradition. The rimu pews are simply constructed. The rimu stalls are panelled with trefoil and quatrefoil motifs, surmounted with crosses. The panelled rimu pulpit is a neat, cantilevered enclosure reached by five stairs.
From the Anteroom, two further areas of the Chapel extension are accessed. Firstly, the choir loft, gained via a small flight of stairs, is a generous loft with a tiered floor. The space fits within the overall structure of the roof. This room currently contains a 1930s pedal organ which may date from the time of the Chapel's construction.
Secondly, from the Anteroom, access was once directly into the Nuns' Rooms and Dormitory located at Chapel level in the rectangular block to the north. These rooms comprise eight small cells and a small dormitory of very simple provision and no decoration. Currently this section of the complex is not accessed in its original manner - both from the Chapel and the Convent Building - but is reached from the Convent Building alone.
Main convent building, St Anthony's and Chapel (with associated connecting structures): brick and reinforced concrete with timber gables and corrugated iron roofing. Interiors with matai flooring, heart rimu and heart totara detailing. Notable stained glass windows in the Chapel.
Lisieux wing: timber with corrugated iron roofing
Coen Wing and gymnasium/classroom extension: brick and reinforced concrete
17th July 2009
Report Written By
Blyss Wagstaff & Alison Dangerfield
Dictionary of New Zealand Biography
Dictionary of New Zealand Biography
Broadbent, John V. 'Redwood, Francis William 1839 - 1935', updated 22 June 2007, URL: http://www.dnzb.govt.nz/, accessed 17 March 2009
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New Zealand Historic Places Trust (NZHPT)
New Zealand Historic Places Trust
NZHPT file 12015-058 Erskine College Main Block, vols 1-8
NZHPT file 12004-036 Erskine Chapel, vols 1-3, available at NZHPT Central Region office
Waitangi Tribunal Report, www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz
Te Whanganui a Tara me ona Takiwa: Report on the Wellington District, accessed 6 March 2009
Kennedy, 1999 (2)
Marie Kennedy, Erskine College of the Sacred Heart 1905-1985: The Seed Never Sees The Flower, The Society of the Sacred Heart, Wellington, 1999.
B A Walsh, Processions: memories from Sacre Coeur, Erskine College, 1905-1985, B.A. Walsh, Auckland, 1999
Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand
Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand
Maclean, Chris, 'Wellington places', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 27-Nov-2008, accessed 6 March 2009
'TE KAWAU, Apihai', from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock, originally published in 1966.
Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 18-Sep-2007
URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/1966/K/TeKawauApihai/en, accessed 6 March 2009
This place is subject to a Heritage Order (1992).
A fully referenced registration report is available from the NZHPT Central region office.
Please note that entry on the New Zealand Heritage List/Rarangi Korero identifies only the heritage values of the property concerned, and should not be construed as advice on the state of the property, or as a comment of its soundness or safety, including in regard to earthquake risk, safety in the event of fire, or insanitary conditions.