National War Memorial

Pukeahu National War Memorial Park, 19 Buckle Street, Wellington

  • National War Memorial, Wellington. Image courtesy of commons.wikimedia.org.
    Copyright: Kristina D.C. Hoeppner - Wikimedia Commons. Taken By: Kristina D.C. Hoeppner . Date: 4/07/2010.
  • National War Memorial, Wellington. Interior of Hall of Memories. CC Licence 3.0 Image courtesy of commons.wikimedia.org.
    Copyright: Nick D - Wikimedia Commons. Taken By: Nick D. Date: 8/06/2012.
  • National War Memorial, Wellington. Rear. ©Photographer Alex Efimoff / Alexefimoff.com.
    Date: 21/02/2017.
  • National War Memorial, Wellington. The dedication of the National War Memorial Carillon, in Wellington, on Anzac Day, 25 April 1932. Ref: 1/1-018026-G. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Copyright: No Known Copyright Restrictions. Taken By: William Hall Raine.

List Entry Information

List Entry Status Listed List Entry Type Historic Place Category 1 Public Access Able to Visit
List Number 1410 Date Entered 28th June 1990

Locationopen/close

Extent of List Entry

Extent includes the land described as Pt Sec 1266 Town of Wellington (RT WN49D/144), Wellington Land District, and the structures associated with the National War Memorial including: the National War Memorial Carillon, the Hall of Memories, the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior, the grand staircase descending in stages down the hill to the north that includes the lion's head fountain, and the immediate landscape surrounding these built elements.

City/District Council

Wellington City

Region

Wellington Region

Legal description

Pt Sec 1266 Town of Wellington (RT WN49D/144), Wellington Land District

Summaryopen/close

Consisting of a Carillon constructed in 1932, a Hall of Memories completed 32 years later, and a Tomb of the Unknown Warrior dedicated in 2004, set amongst striking landscaping, the National War Memorial is a solemn tribute to, and a commemoration of, the contribution of all those New Zealanders who have served and died in overseas wars. The National War Memorial has considerable cultural, symbolic and spiritual significance as New Zealand's key war memorial monument; it is a national acknowledgement of the sacrifices made by New Zealand citizens and is held in high esteem by the public. The Carillon, now the third largest in the world, has technological significance and is a prominent landmark in Wellington. The Hall of Memories has architectural and aesthetic significance as the combined work of renowned architects, sculptors and designers from both New Zealand and England, and serves as the memorial chapel. The National War Memorial remains a living symbol of remembrance.

In 1919, after the end of the First World War, the New Zealand Government unanimously approved the expenditure of £100,000 to construct from permanent materials, a highly visible National Memorial that would embody the objects and sacrifices of war. After considerable debate, the prominent Mount Cook site in Wellington was selected in 1928. Long associated with war, the site was used as a pā by Te Ātiawa, and for military purposes by the Government from 1847.

Debate over the form that the memorial was to take was partially resolved in 1927 by the Wellington War Memorial Carillon Society, who gifted 49 bronze bells to the Government. Originally intended to form part of the Wellington war memorial, the bells were paid for by the public and inscribed with the names of the donors and the city's war dead. Shortly afterwards the Government concluded that the National War Memorial should consist of two structures; a carillon, in which the bronze bells would be housed, and a 'hall of memories'. A new national museum and art gallery was to be constructed at the rear of the memorial.

The well-known Auckland based firm Gummer and Ford won a national competition to design the museum and two memorial structures in 1929. The Carillon was the first of the three to be erected. It was completed by Christchurch building firm P. Graham & Sons at the cost of £18,687. The Carillon was constructed from reinforced concrete and faced with Putaruru stone. Art Deco in style, the Carillon featured wrought iron grilles and delicate, copper louvres, which allowed the music of the bells to flow freely from the tower and provide an aural acknowledgement of the fallen. The approach to the tower featured a grand, paved staircase embellished by a brass lion-head fountain that was designed by sculptor Richard Oliver Gross (1882-1964). At 51 metres high (166 feet), the tower was designed to be a landmark in Wellington, and a prominent visual tribute. The opening ceremony was held on Anzac Day in 1932 by the then Governor General Lord Bledisloe (1867-1958).

The Museum and Art Gallery building (Category 1), completed in 1936, was the second of the structures to be constructed. Although not a part of the National War Memorial, the building was designed to serve as an impressive and appropriate background for the Carillon and Hall of Memories. The construction of the Hall of Memories, the final stage in the original project, was delayed by the commencement of the Second World War. After the war, in 1949, Gummer and Ford designed elaborate plans for the completion of the memorial. When a change of government led to calls for a 'simple but dignified' memorial that avoided 'unnecessary and expensive embellishments', the plans were scaled down and construction was delayed until 1960.

Erected by P. Graham & Sons at the cost of £113,800, the Hall of Memories was a rectangular structure approximately 20 metres long and 12 metres wide. Its plain, concrete exterior was concealed behind the Carillon, whose entrance doubled as the entrance to the Hall. The interior of the Hall was paved in marble. Along each side, recesses in the walls commemorated each of the separate arms of the New Zealand Defence Force. Above them, curved stained glass windows reflected the gentle curve of the ceiling and allowed coloured light into the interior. At the far end of the Hall a large bronze sculpture of a mother and two children served as a focal point. Designed by Lyndon Smith, the sculpture symbolised the reasons for and the sacrifices made during war. Throughout the Hall were reflective verses that honoured those who served in the wars, and symbolic reminders of New Zealand's links to the Commonwealth. It was officially opened in 1964.

The focus of Anzac Day commemorations since its completion, the Hall of Memories was refurbished and seismically strengthened in 2014-15. The Carillon has also been restored and expanded. Rededicated in 1986 and played regularly, the full commission of 74 bells was in place by 1997 and has a range of 6 octaves. In 2004, to mark the 85th anniversary of the end of the First World War, a Tomb of the Unknown Warrior was installed before the Hall’s entrance to represent those New Zealanders who lie in unmarked graves overseas. Other changes around the Memorial include the closure of the National Museum & Art Gallery in 1996, and the trenching of the road in front of the Memorial in 2014. That was part of the major development of the Pukeahu National War Memorial Park, opened in April 2015, which realised the original concept of a ceremonial plaza for the National War Memorial, and increased the mana of the place as the national focus of commemoration.

Assessment criteriaopen/close

Historical Significance or Value

Designed as a sister carillon to the Peace Tower Carillon at Parliament Buildings, Ottawa, Canada, the National War Memorial of New Zealand,

consisting of the Carillon (1931-32) and Hall of Memories (1960-64), commemorates the 28614 New Zealanders who served and fell in the Boer War, World War I, World War II, and in the wars in Korea, Malaysia and Vietnam. It is one of New Zealand's principal war memorials.

ARCHITECTURAL QUALITY:

Designed at the height of popularity of Art Deco architecture, the Carillon is an outstanding example of this genre and of William Gummer's work. Although not a style he used often, Art Deco in this instance was admirably suited to the function required. The soaring, tapered tower with abstract grille houses one of the world's largest carillons, the only one in New Zealand.

As a design this building has stood the test of time well and in its restored state and commanding position it is one of Wellington's outstanding buildings.

TOWNSCAPE/LANDMARK VALUE

Sited at the terminal of the low spur of Mount Cook, the National War Memorial and Carillon is one of Wellington's most prominent landmarks. With the National Museum and Art Gallery building (1933-36) as a grand backdrop, the campanile is prominent from many parts of the city as well as from the surrounding hillsides of Mount Victoria, Brooklyn and Kelburn.

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Construction Professionalsopen/close

Fletcher Construction Company

Fletcher Construction Company was founded by Scottish-born James Fletcher (1886 - 1974), the son of a builder. Six months after his arrival in Dunedin in 1908, Fletcher formed a house-building partnership with Bert Morris. They soon moved into larger-scale construction work, building the St Kilda Town Hall (1911), and the main dormitory block and Ross Chapel at Knox College (1912). Fletcher's brothers, William, Andrew and John joined the business in 1911, which then became known as Fletcher Brothers. A branch was opened in Invercargill.

While holidaying in Auckland in 1916, James tendered for the construction of the the Auckland City Markets. By 1919 the company, then known as Fletcher Construction, was firmly established in Auckland and Wellington. Notable landmarks constructed by the company during the Depression included the Auckland University College Arts Building (completed 1926); Landmark House (the former Auckland Electric Power Board Building, 1927); Auckland Civic Theatre (1929); the Chateau Tongariro (1929); and the Dominion Museum, Wellington (1934).

Prior to the election of the first Labour Government, Fletcher (a Reform supporter) had advised the Labour Party on housing policy as hbe believed in large-scale planning and in the inter-dependence of government and business. However, he declined an approach by Prime Minister Michael Joseph Savage in December 1935 to sell the company to the government, when the latter wanted to ensure the large-scale production of rental state housing. Although Fletchers ultimately went on to build many of New Zealand's state houses, for several years Residential Construction Ltd (the subsidiary established to undertake their construction) sustained heavy financial losses.

Fletcher Construction became a public company, Fletcher Holdings, in 1940. Already Fletchers' interests were wide ranging: brickyards, engineering shops, joinery factories, marble quarries, structural steel plants and other enterprises had been added the original construction firm. Further expansion could only be undertaken with outside capital.

During the Second World War James Fletcher, having retired as chairman of Fletcher Holdings, was seconded to the newly created position of Commissioner of State Construction which he held during 1942 and 1943. Directly responsible to Prime Minister Peter Fraser, Fletcher had almost complete control over the deployment of workers and resources. He also became the Commissioner of the Ministry of Works, set up in 1943, a position he held until December 1945.

In 1981 Fletcher Holdings; Tasman Pulp and Paper; and Challenge Corporation amalgamated to form Fletcher Challenge Ltd, at that time New Zealand's largest company.

Williamson Construction Company - main contract

Gross, Richard Oliver

Gross was born in England and immigrated to New Zealand in 1914 having been trained in sculpture at the London Camberwell School of Art under Albert Toft. Toft was a regular exhibitor at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1885.

Gross' works include the Auckland Domain gates' statues, Wellington Citizen's Peace Memorial, the Savage Memorial at Orakei, the carved lion head fountain on the Carillon at Wellington and the stone lion in the Auckland Domain Wintergardens. At one time Gross was the only New Zealand sculptor casting in bronze at his own foundry.

Gross was president of the Auckland Society of Arts for ten years, chairman of the McKelvie Trust Board and chairman of the Associated Art Societies of New Zealand.

Gummer & Ford

The architectural partnership of Gummer and Ford was established in 1923, and became one of national importance.

William Henry Gummer (1884-1966) was articled to W.A. Holman, an Auckland architect, and was elected as an Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1910. In the period 1908-1913 he travelled in the United Kingdom, Europe and the United States. During this time he worked for Sir Edwin Lutyens, leading English architect of the time, and for Daniel Burnham in Chicago. Burnham was a major American architect and one of the founders of the influential Chicago School of Architecture. Gummer joined the firm of Hoggard and Prouse of Auckland and Wellington in 1913. In 1914 he was elected a Fellow of the New Zealand Institute of Architects, was president of the Institute from 1933-34 and was later elected a life member.

Charles Reginald Ford (1880- 1972) was born in England and served in the Royal Navy. He was later with Captain Scott's 1901-1904 expedition to Antarctica. He trained as an architect working in Wanganui as an engineer. In 1926 he wrote the first treatise on earthquake and

building construction in the English language. Ford was president of the New Zealand Institute of Architects from 1921-22.

Buildings designed by the partnership include the State Insurance Building Wellington, (1940) the Dilworth Building (1926), the Guardian Trust Building and the Domain Wintergardens (1921 and 1928), all in Auckland, and the Dominion Museum (1936) in Wellington. Gummer and Ford were awarded Gold Medals from the New Zealand Institute of Architects for the designs of Auckland Railway Station and Remuera Library.

Gummer was one of the most outstanding architects working in New Zealand in the first half of this century and was responsible for the stylistically and structurally advanced Tauroa (1916), Craggy Range (1919), Arden (1926), and Te Mata (1935) homesteads at Havelock North.

P. Graham and Son

P. Graham and Son of Christchurch.

Smith, Lyndon

No biography is currently available for this construction professional

Gilliet & Johnston Ltd

Croydon, England

John Taylor Ltd

Bellfounders of Loughborough, England

Whitechapel Bell Foundry

Bellfounders, London England.

Thornton, Dunning

No biography is currently available for this construction professional

Fourmaintraux, Pierre

No biography is currently available for this construction professional

Walshe, Paul

No biography is currently available for this construction professional

Hurd, Timothy

No biography is currently available for this construction professional

Baird, Kingsley

No biography is currently available for this construction professional

Studio Pacific Architecture

No biography is currently available for this construction professional

Additional informationopen/close

Historical Narrative

Pukeahu is said to have received its name, meaning ‘sacred hill’, from Ngāi Tara, the first Māori tribal group to settle in the area. Ngāi Tara established a large pā named Te Akatarewa nearby, and used the slopes of Pukeahu for gardening. Centuries later the cultivation sites were reused by iwi from Taranaki after they had migrated to Wellington in the 1820s, displacing Ngāti Ira. When formal European settlement began in 1840 Te Ātiawa iwi were established in the area. Te Ātiawa chiefs signed a deed of purchase with the New Zealand Company that promised that Pukeahu would be held in trust for Māori as a native reserve, however this was not honoured by the colonial surveyors who instead designated it a public reserve for military purposes. The hill was renamed ‘Mount Cook’ and has since been the site for prisons, a brickworks, law enforcement stations, educational institutions, and a military base. By the turn of the twentieth century the military had taken over the site, which housed the Alexandra Barracks, the General Headquarters and the Council of Defence. After the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 the Alexandra Barracks was used to detain conscientious objectors as prisoners.

The massive loss of life New Zealand suffered in the First World War affected everyone, and motivated a wave of memorial-building from 1916 onwards. Over 500 memorials were erected throughout the country, in the form of monuments, honours boards, commemorative plaques and dedications.

The Government had considered a National War Memorial since 1919 and about 1928 it offered the Mount Cook site for the location of a National War Memorial, National Museum and National Art Gallery.

About 1926 the Wellington War Memorial Carillon Society was formed and in May of that year raised just under £10,000 in a one week fundraising campaign for the purchase of a 49 bell carillon. The Society offered the bells to the Wellington Citizen's War Memorial Committee who declined the offer in preference of a silent memorial and the bells were then offered to the Government for inclusion in the National War Memorial.

Tender for the 49 bell carillon was let in July 1927 to Gillet and Johnston Ltd of Croydon, England. In 1929 a competition was held for the design of a complex to include a museum, art gallery, carillon tower and hall of memories, the last two to form the National War Memorial. The competition was won by Gummer and Ford of Auckland and the foundation stone of the carillon tower or campanile was laid by the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. G.W. Forbes on 15 May 1931.

During the planning and construction of the campanile the carillon was lent to the Newcastle-on-Tyne Exhibition. Later it was temporarily installed in Hyde Park, London, where it was heard by large crowds before being shipped to New Zealand and installed at Wellington.

The National War Memorial and Carillon was dedicated on Anzac Day, 25 April 1932. It was consecrated by the Bishop of Wellington, the Rt. Rev. Dr T.H. Sprott and opened by the Governor-General, Lord Bledisloe, who switched on the lamp of remembrance at the top of the tower. The lamp was a gift of the Air Force Association of New Zealand.

At this time the lower part of the south face was left unfinished, the site of the proposed Hall of Memories. Construction was delayed by the Second World War and preliminary plans were completed by Gummer and Ford in 1949. Construction did not begin until 1960. The Hall of Memories was completed in 1964 and opened on 5 April of that year by the Governor-General Sir Bernard Fergusson.

Restoration of the tower began in 1981 and in 1985 a major restoration of the carillon instrument was undertaken by National Carillonist Timothy Hurd QSM. The addition of 16 treble bells brought the total to 65, while the original specification made provision for 69. Following the renovations of the tower and carillon, the National War Memorial and Carillon was formally re-dedicated by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on 26 February 1986.

To mark the 75th anniversary of the landings at Gallipoli, in 1990 the RNZRSA commissioned a bronze statue of Henderson and his Donkey by Paul Walshe. This was installed on the main terrace below the tower as a tribute to the heroic medical personnel at Gallipoli. Another anniversary, the 50th commemoration of the end of the Second World War, provided the opportunity to bring the carillon up to its full complement of 74 bells, which was achieved by Anzac Day 1997. Government funding and the Lottery Grants Board afforded the casting of four large bass bells, while Timothy Hurd donated five additional small treble bells. The carillon is now the third heaviest as well as the third largest in the world.

The twenty-first century ushered in new developments for the National War Memorial. The installation of the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior realised an idea first raised in 1920. The remains of an unidentified New Zealand soldier who had been killed in the First World War were repatriated from Longueval, France, as a memorial to all those who had not made the journey home after serving their country in overseas wars. On Armistice Day 2004, with full military honours, the casket was borne in a procession through Wellington city and interred in a tomb designed by artist Kingsley Baird. A carillon recital played a part in the ceremony.

2012 heralded the major redevelopment of the area in front of the National War Memorial, comprising Buckle Street and the land opposite, to create a memorial park. Central Government funding and empowering legislation was secured to trench Buckle Street and build the park above the newly-created Arras Tunnel, in time for the centenary commemorations of the First World War. The National War Memorial underwent conservation at the same time. Pukeahu National War Memorial Park was officially opened on 18 April 2015 by the Governor-General Sir Jerry Mateparae and Prime Minister John Key, and finally provided the ceremonial plaza space conceptualised in Gummer and Ford’s original vision. The Dawn Ceremony on Anzac Day 2015 was attended by an estimated crowd of 50,000, and since then the park has seen increased focus on the National War Memorial as New Zealand’s most important site for war commemoration. The carillon instrument was also fully restored between 2015-2018.

Physical Description

Architectural Description

The National War Memorial’s structural elements of carillon tower/campanile, Hall of Memories and Tomb of the Unknown Warrior are set centrally within symmetrical and rectilinear landscaping of ranks of steps and terraces. This is surrounded by an encircling driveway leading up to the former Dominion Museum and National Art Gallery, which forms an important backdrop and frame to the National War Memorial.

Carillon tower/campanile

The campanile which houses the 74 bell carillon rises to a height of 50.6 metres from base to roof top. The campanile is essentially an Art Deco design with a classical emphasis at lower levels.

A lion head fountain carved by R.O. Gross forms part of the grand staircase which leads to the campanile on the north facing slope of Mount Cook. The campanile itself consists of a marble base, through which entry is obtained to the north, and a slightly tapering tower. The tower has four almost identical facades of grey marble and buff coloured cement plaster. Recessed precast concrete grilles, three to each facade, allow music from the bells to pass through the upper portion of the tower. The abstract zigzag pattern in these trellises becomes increasingly intricate as the height increases. This appears to accentuate the height of the structure. The capital of the campanile has five semi-circular copper louvres at each of the four chamfered corners, above which is a dentilled pavilion roof topped with a lamp of remembrance.

Inside the campanile is the carillon of 74 (originally 49) inscribed bells. The bells are held in a stationary position and sounds are made by activating cast iron clappers from a keyboard known as the clavier. The bells cover 6 octaves, ranging from a 12.25 ton bell measuring nearly 3 metres in diameter to the smallest treble bell weighing only a few kilograms.

Hall of Memories

To the rear (south) of the campanile is the Hall of Memories commemorating the war dead. Completed to the design of Gummer and Ford in 1964, the Hall of Memories is an unobtrusive structure at the base of the campanile. The interior is accessed from the foyer of the campanile, and is arranged in the form of a church, with an elevated sanctuary at the south end of a tall vaulted ‘nave’ with recessed alcoves on each side. Stained glass in the ‘dalle de verre’ style, and skylights, infuse the space with light from above. The hall is decorated with relief carvings and inlaid stone, flags and banners of the armed services, remembrance plaques and the coats of arms of New Zealand provinces and the members of the Commonwealth. Lyndon Smith’s ‘Mother and Children’ statue is in the Sanctuary; the words from the fourth stanza of Laurence Binyon’s poem ‘For the Fallen’ – referred to as the Ode of Remembrance – are inlaid in bronze on the wall above. The Saint Lazarus Memorial Organ, donated in 2007 by the Military and Hospitaller Order of St Lazarus of Jerusalem in memory of New Zealand military medical personnel, is on the mezzanine floor above the main entrance.

Tomb of the Unknown Warrior

On the terrace in front of the entrance to the Hall of Memories is the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior. This black granite rectangular tomb is partially inset into the slope so it is flanked by five steps between the upper and lower terraces. Light grey marble crosses are arranged in grids in the sides of the tomb. A karanga in both Māori and English is engraved around the base of the tomb. A rectangular bronze slab inlaid with four pounamu crosses caps the top.

Pukeahu National War Memorial Park is to the north of the National War Memorial. The park was designed ‘to create a landscape for the memorial that evokes, supports and hosts commemoration’.

Notable Features

Inscribed bells ('Reo Wairua', Grace (Aroha), Hope (Tumanako), Remembrance, (Whakamaharatanga) and Peace (Rangimarie))

Family sculpture by Lyndon Smith in the Hall of Memories.

Lionhead fountain designed by sculptor Richard Gross on the steps approaching the carillon.

Bronze statue of Henderson and his donkey, by Paul Walshe.

Saint Lazarus Memorial Organ in the Hall of Memories.

Construction Dates

Original Construction
- 1932
Dedication of the Carillon

Designed
- 1937
Architectural plans for the Hall of Memories commissioned and completed

Addition
- 1938
Lift installed in the campanile

Designed
- 1949
Architectural plans for the Hall of Memories commissioned and completed

Original Construction
1960 - 1964
Hall of Memories constructed

Addition
1995 - 1997
More bells added to bring the Carillon to a full six-octave range; Carillon has the full complement of bells (74) by 1997

Addition
- 2004
Tomb of the Unknown Warrior installed; Repairs to fountain; landscape paving replaced; lighting and drainage upgraded

Structural upgrade
2014 - 2015
Hall of Memories seismically strengthened

Restoration
2015 - 2018
Restoration of Carillon including replacement of all cables, and restoration of all moving parts; repairs to bell frame

Other
- 1928
Site selected

Restoration
- 1981
Restoration of Carillon (upper section of the Carillon re-plastered; replacement of timber doors, balustrades, metal window frames, wrought iron grilles covering windows, copper louvres in the top bell chamber and the glass surrounding Lamp of Remembrance)

Restoration
- 1985
Restoration of Carillon (Clapper springs and steel wires connected to clappers replaced; 20 mid-range bells replaced; 16 treble bells added)

Other
- 1987
New clavier installed in Carillon; Practice clavier installed in Carillon; Electro-magnetic playing apparatus removed

Original Construction
- 1936
National Museum and Art Gallery completed

Designed
- 1955
Plans for the Hall of Memories approved by Cabinet

Addition
- 1972
Rolls of Honour added

Restoration
1982 - 1986
Restoration of Carillon (Putaruru stone on exterior of tower replaced with marble from Takaka; steel structure supporting bells strengthened; steel frame constructed to strengthen the upper portion of the tower)

Other
- 1986
Restored Carillon rededicated

Addition
- 1990
Bronze statue of Henderson and his Donkey by Paul Walshe installed on the main landing below the tower

Other
1996 -
Closure of National Museum and Art Gallery

Refurbishment/renovation
1999 - 2000
Hall of Memories reroofed; new copper flashings installed on tower roof

Maintenance/repairs
- 2002
Asbestos removed from interior ceilings of Hall of Memories and new plaster applied

Addition
- 2007
Saint Lazarus Memorial Organ installed

Other
2012 - 2015
Road in front of the National War Memorial trenched; Arras Tunnel created; Pukeahu National War Memorial Park built above the tunnel, at the base of the National War Memorial

Maintenance/repairs
2012 - 2013
Repairs to the Carillon tower including replacement of internal steps, ladders and landings; seismic strengthening; plaster repairs to exterior; steel windows, main door and balconies repaired; repairs to clerestory windows including reconfiguration of angled glazing

Construction Details

The Carillon tower is constructed on a foundation of reinforced concrete. The body of the tower is also constructed from reinforced concrete and is faced with marble. The Carillon tower roof has a timber frame and is clad in copper sheeting. The interior is paved with tonalite from the Coromandel.

The Hall of Memories is constructed from reinforced concrete. It is faced with concrete slabs. The interior consists of limestone and pink Hanmer marble.

The Tomb of the Unknown Warrior is constructed from black granite inlaid with crosses of Takaka Marble. A bronze cloak inlaid with four pounamu crosses references the New Zealand flag.

The surrounding hard landscaping is of reinforced concrete with Putaruru stone copings and carved details, finished with coloured plaster and matched with modern precast concrete pavers. A brass handrail has recently been installed in the outer perimeter walls.

Completion Date

10th April 2019

Report Written By

Rebecca O'Brien and Blyss Wagstaff

Information Sources

MacLean, 1990

Chris MacLean and Jock Phillips, The Sorrow and the Pride: New Zealand War Memorials, Wellington, 1990

Maclean, 1998

C Maclean, For Whom the Bells Toll: A History of the National War Memorial, Wellington, 1998

Muir, 1932

E E Muir, National War Memorial and Carillon, Wellington, 1932

Owen, 1967

Owen, R, National War Memorial, Wellington, New Zealand, Wellington, 1967, 2nd edition

R&D Architects, Michael Kelly and SPK Landscape Architects, 2018

R&D Architects, Michael Kelly and SPK Landscape Architects, National War Memorial: Conservation Plan, Wellington, 2018

Other Information

Fully referenced versions of the 2003 and 2019 upgrade reports are available from the NZHPT Central Region office.

This historic place was registered under the Historic Places Act 1980. This report includes the text from the original Building Classification Committee report considered by the NZHPT Board at the time of registration, plus from upgrade reports completed in 2003 and 2019.

Please note that entry on the New Zealand Heritage List/Rarangi Korero identifies only the heritage values of the property concerned, and should not be construed as advice on the state of the property, or as a comment of its soundness or safety, including in regard to earthquake risk, safety in the event of fire, or insanitary conditions.