Kinross Farm Steading

2282 Gibbston Highway (State Highway 6), Gibbston

  • Original image submitted at time of registration.
    Copyright: NZHPT Field Record Form.

List Entry Information

List Entry Status Listed List Entry Type Historic Place Category 2 Public Access Private/No Public Access
List Number 7240 Date Entered 14th July 1995

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Extent of List Entry

The extent includes the land described as Lot 1 DP 24857 (CT OT16D/564), Otago Land District, and the place known as Kinross Farm Steading, 2282 Gibbston Highway, Gibbston, Otago, its fixtures and fittings thereon.

City/District Council

Queenstown-Lakes District

Region

Otago Region

Legal description

Lot 1 DP 24857 (CT OT16D/564), Otago Land District

Assessment criteriaopen/close

Historical Significance or Value

This historic place was registered under the Historic Places Act 1993. The following text is from the original Recommendation for Classification report considered by the NZHPT Board at the time of registration.

Historical:

Kinross Farm is associated with the Kinross family, early European settlers in the former gold-mining town of Gibbston, Central Otago. It is a good representative example of the development of commerce and agriculture in Central Otago from the late 19th century onwards.

This historic place was registered under the Historic Places Act 1993. The following text is from the original Recommendation for Classification report considered by the NZHPT Board at the time of registration.

Aesthetic:

Kinross farm possess a certain picturesque quality in the arrangement of trees (notably a stand of oaks) surrounding the farmstead, and in the arrangement of stone walls and stone buildings within the walls. The impression is similar to that of an enclosed English steading, which is the tradition from which Kinross Farm derives its form and outline.

Architectural:

The merit of Kinross farm lies in its arrangement of buildings within stone walls. This form reflects the British tradition of housing several farming functions on one or more adjoining blocks with an enclosing yard.

Archaeological:

The farm site has archaeological potential as the settlement and use of the farm and many of the farm structures date to c.1900.

This historic place was registered under the Historic Places Act 1993. The following text is from the original Recommendation for Classification report considered by the NZHPT Board at the time of registration.

a) the extent to which the place reflects important or representative aspects of New Zealand history:

The farm complex is a good representative example of the development of European commerce and agriculture in Central Otago.

b) the association of the place with events, persons or ideas of importance in New Zealand history:

Thomas Kinross, or "the grand Old Man of Gibbston" as he is described in the recent local history, was born in Dunbland in 1835 and came out to New Zealand in 1863. He settled in Gibbston later that year, converting a hotel into a store. Kinross was also postmaster and gold-buyer for the BNZ, and later established a small community library, which he housed on his premises. He was chairman of the school committee for 32 years, a JP and landowner.

His farm was acquired gradually in small pockets, some as the result of non-paying customers. These, as well as the acquisition of land from other early European settlers, gave him ownership of a large amount of the land in the vicinity of the township.

c) the potential of the place to provide knowledge of New Zealand history:

The farm, with its layers of development, and structures moved from elsewhere, shows the adaptability of 20th century European agriculture practices in marginal land areas.

g) the technical accomplishment or value, or design of the place:

Kinross Farm steading is comprised of a number of structures, being the farm house, a walled cottage garden, a stone building once used as a cart shed, a woolshed and workshop, a stone-walled sheep yard, a partly constructed stone hen house and a miners cottage which was shifted to the property in 1921. In addition there are some notable trees, including a stand of oaks.

The farm house is of indeterminate age, and appears to have been significantly altered over the years. The drystone walled cottage garden is topped with slightly larger vertically laid coping stones. Directly behind the house is located a timber miner's cottage, which was relocated to this site in 1921. The stone building is directly behind the farmhouse. The building forms the northern side of a farm yard enclosure, the other three sides being drystone walls. The hen house is similarly constructed. The woolshed is of modem construction, and is made of corrugated iron. All stone structures are built of local schist, which is a common construction material in Central Otago.

The walls of the farm enclosure and cottage garden are drystone, whereas the walls of the stone building, although of the same construction - random rubble brought to course - are joined with mortar, probably with mud origin.

One aspect of the architectural merit of Kinross farm lies in its arrangement of buildings within stone walls to form a steading. This form reflects the British tradition of housing several farming functions on one or more adjoining blocks with an enclosing yard. This is not a particularly common arrangement of farm buildings, and Kinross compares well to other known examples of farm steading in New Zealand.

k) the extent to which the place forms part of a wider historical and cultural complex or historical and cultural landscape:

Gibbston is now a sparsely settled ribbon of farming land. However, there are many historical features in the valley, including huts and other early farming structures, and Kinross Farm has strong links with many of them.

Conclusion:

Kinross Farm Steading, Gibbston, is recommended for registration as a Category II historic place as a place of historical and cultural heritage significance and value. It is a good example of a farm steading, which is a relatively uncommon arrangement of farm structures in New Zealand. The buildings and structures have aesthetic appeal in the grouping of the structures and in the use of stone as construction material. The farm is associated with the Kinross family, early European settlers in the former gold mining town of Gibbston, Central Otago. It is a good representative example of the development of commerce and agriculture in Central Otago from the late 19th century onwards.

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Construction Dates

Original Construction
1900 -

Information Sources

Cook, 1985

Anne Cook, 'Gibbston Story', Otago Heritage Books, Dunedin, 1985

Thornton, 1986

Geoffrey Thornton, The New Zealand Heritage of Farm Buildings, Auckland, 1986

Other Information

A copy of the original report is available from the NZHPT Southern region office

Please note that entry on the New Zealand Heritage List/Rarangi Korero identifies only the heritage values of the property concerned, and should not be construed as advice on the state of the property, or as a comment of its soundness or safety, including in regard to earthquake risk, safety in the event of fire, or insanitary conditions.