Old High Court

85 Lambton Quay, Pipitea, Wellington

  • Old High Court. Image courtesy of commons.wikimedia.org.
    Copyright: Eric - Wikimedia Commons. Taken By: Eric - Wikimedia Commons. Date: 4/02/2012.
  • Old High Court. Image courtesy of commons.wikimedia.org.
    Copyright: Pear285 - Wikimedia Commons. Taken By: Pear285 - Wikimedia Commons. Date: 10/01/2015.
  • Old High Court. Image courtesy of commons.wikimedia.org.
    Copyright: Pear285 - Wikimedia Commons. Taken By: Pear285 - Wikimedia Commons. Date: 10/01/2015.

List Entry Information

List Entry Status Listed List Entry Type Historic Place Category 1 Public Access Able to Visit
List Number 219 Date Entered 2nd July 1982

Locationopen/close

Extent of List Entry

Extent includes part of the land described as Lot 1 DP 403086 (CT 410107), Wellington Land District, and the building known as the Old High Court, Wellington thereon. (Refer to the extent map tabled at the Heritage List/ Rārangi Kōrero Committee meeting on 12 November 2015).

City/District Council

Wellington City

Region

Wellington Region

Legal description

Lot 1 DP 403086 (CT 410107), Wellington Land District

Summaryopen/close

The neo-Classical Old High Court building, Wellington was constructed in 1879 to 1881 to house the High Court, which used to be known as the Supreme Court. It is of historic, architectural, aesthetic, social and technological heritage significance, and is an important element in Wellington’s Government Centre Historic Area. Designed by Pierre Finch Martineau Burrows, it was the first major public building in Wellington to be constructed in masonry. Home to the High Court in Wellington from 1881 to 1993 and central in a precinct historically associated with justice, the building is strongly associated with the social and legal heritage of New Zealand, and is connected with many important cases in the country’s legal history. Furthermore, the building has features of high aesthetic value, including the main courtroom.

Wellington’s first Supreme Court building was opened in Lambton Quay in 1861 but when the seat of government was moved from Auckland to Wellington four years later, a new and more appropriate building was planned. The new building was designed in 1878 by P. F. M. Burrows, Chief Draughtsman in the Public Works Department, who was inspired by English court buildings. Burrows took over the duties of the Colonial Architect after WH Clayton died in 1877 but never received that title. The Old High Court is one of his most important buildings. The foundation stone was laid on 1 December 1879, an event that drew a crowd of 2000 people. James Barry and William McDowall were awarded the £24,785 contract to construct the building. Their subcontractors included plasterer Edmund Platt.

The site was on reclaimed land and concrete piles were driven into the bedrock. The T-shaped building was opened in 1881 and its main entrance was on Stout Street. The ground floor included a vestibule, main No 1 Courtroom, a smaller courtroom, a library, jury rooms, and offices. An arbitration court and apartment were on the first floor, and the basement contained five cells and a staircase leading directly up to the dock in the main courtroom. One of the building’s key features is the main courtroom, which is lined with kauri panelling and includes a canopied bench and a curved staircase leading from the vestibule to the public gallery. The exterior features a rusticated ground floor, round-headed windows, and triangular pediments.

The Court of Appeal, Magistrates Court and Arbitration Court also shared the building over the years. By the early 1900s, lack of space became an issue and Government Architect John Campbell designed major additions in 1907 and 1913 that followed the style of the original structure. Further alterations were made in the 1940s and 1956, then in 1981 a third major addition was completed, two years after the Supreme Court was renamed the High Court. In 1993 the building was left vacant and fell into disrepair, after the High Court was relocated to a new building in Molesworth Street, Wellington. In 2004, the Supreme Court was established as New Zealand’s highest tribunal, and alongside the construction of a new building, the former High Court was restored at a cost of $37.3 million. The restoration involved demolition of some additions, base isolation seismic strengthening, and the repair and restoration of decorative mouldings and key interior features.

The two adjoining buildings were completed in 2009 and the Supreme Court complex was opened the following year. The new Supreme Court was designed to mirror key elements of the old building. In 2010, the Ministry of Justice won an Encore Award in the Historic Heritage category for the restoration of the Old High Court. The building has retained its authenticity in terms of design, materiality, craftsmanship and setting, and is currently used for ceremonial occasions.

Linksopen/close

Construction Professionalsopen/close

Burrows, Pierre Finch Martineau

Burrows was born in Norwich, England, and arrived in New Zealand about 1863. He began working under W H Clayton in the Colonial Architect's Office in 1874 and became Chief Draughtsman in 1875. When Clayton died, Burrows took over his duties, but he did not receive a designation of Colonial Architect.

Burrow's most important buildings include the Post Office at Christchurch (1877), the Supreme Court House, Wellington (1879), and the Mount Eden Prison (begun 1883). He was also responsible for a number of smaller post offices and courthouses. His brother Arthur Washington Burrows was also an architect, practising in Auckland and Tauranga.

Holmes Consulting Group

No biography is currently available for this construction professional

Campbell, John

(Union Church Naseby)

James Barry and William McDowall

No biography is currently available for this construction professional

Edmund Platt

No biography is currently available for this construction professional

Additional informationopen/close

Construction Dates

Original Construction
1879 - 1881

Addition
1907 - 1908
Major additions to the north-east and south-east corners

Addition
1913 -
Major addition to the north-west corner

Modification
1956 -
Four decorative pediments removed

Other
1993 -
The building is vacated

Refurbishment/renovation
2007 - 2009
Restoration and earthquake strengthening; construction of the adjoining Supreme Court building

Completion Date

9th October 2015

Report Written By

Natalie Marshall

Information Sources

New Zealand Times

New Zealand Times

New Zealand Times, 2 December 1879.

Ministry of Justice

Ministry of Justice

The Supreme Court of New Zealand, Ministry of Justice, Wellington, ca. 2010

Cochran, 2006

Cochran, Chris, Supreme Court, 42 Stout Street, Wellington: Conservation Report, Ministry of Justice, Wellington, 2006

Other Information

NZIA National Award Winners 2011. Category: Interior Architecture and Heritage conservation

Please note that entry on the New Zealand Heritage List/Rarangi Korero identifies only the heritage values of the property concerned, and should not be construed as advice on the state of the property, or as a comment of its soundness or safety, including in regard to earthquake risk, safety in the event of fire, or insanitary conditions.

A fully referenced upgrade report is available on request from the Central Region Office of Heritage New Zealand